THE UHKlbiiiii^ ».• Clinton Hall. Astur r MEW Y p « ^^ ,\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ v^~ V \ nTn^'v'n \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^ ^1& /4 M. P.ITTEUSON. J. A. PATTERSON. '/ /^^^^:^^:^CTr jj^^^^^^jig^^^:^^^^->^^ - "^ ^ Class JE-Li^ liook ...Hs H? PRi:SKXTi:i) IJY 5 R LONG FELT WUNT SUPPLIED. THE NEW n k-^ n ^_ Neta7 BEriiE, Nortli Carnlina, THE ONLY HOTEL IN THE CITY SUPPLIED WITH ALL THE MODERN CONVENIENCES, AND BUILT EXPRESSLY FOR THE ACCOMMODATION OF THE TRAVELING PUBLIC, NOW OPEN FOR THE RECEPTION OF GUESTS. f . PATTEESON & SOI^, Proprietors. JOUUNAL JOB PRINT, NEW BERNE, N. C. 18S7. HOTEL ALBERT, HOTEL ALBEKT is a uew departure iu the ancient city of New Berne; it is the first time in its history that an attempt has been made to fill the requirements of the traveling public, in the erec- tion of a -good Hotel building; in this attempt the i^roprietor has been eminently successful, and has now supplied a long felt want. Hotel Albert is located in the heart of the business portion, of the city; it is constructed of brick, has 60 feet front and is 165 feet deep. It is three stories in height, the front of the building as well as the inside is finished in an elaborate and beautiful manner. The Hotel is well supplied with water-closets and bath-rooms. There are gas fixtures all through the house, and water is carried into every room throughout the building. The water used in the Hotel, for drinking purposes, comes from an artesian well, an analysis of tije State Chemist shows it to be very good. The Hotel is also furnished with an unlimited supply of rain water. From an observatory on the top of the building, there is an extensive and magnificent view of the broad Neuse river and the picturesque Trent, and of the extensive forests around New Bern^, studded with farms. Hotel Albert is constructed expressly for the accommodation of tourists with their families, also for infirm persons who are seeking for renewed vigor and health in a climate exempt from the icy blasts of the North, and the torrid heats of the Gulf States. There are speaking tubes from each floor connecting with the office. Electric bells in every room. liadiators in every room. There is a first-class Barber Saloon in the basement. A fine Billiard room, also a baggage room. An Omnibus line runs in connection with the Norfolk steamers and the Atlantic and North Carolina Kailroad. There are first-class Livery Stables near the Hotel from which good teams can be obtained to visit the places of interest around New Berne. NEW BERNE, N. C. The table will be well supplied lioni the home market, also from the markets abroad, and will be ftrst-class. Every attention will be paid to seeure the comfort and happiness of the guests. The average size of the bed rooms in Hotel Albert is 15 by 18 feet, with large windows, and over each door there is a patent transom glass, or light with a patent transom lifter. The whole building is so constructed that there is a free circulation of air throughout. Each room has water carried into it, and the floors are covered either with Brussels or ingrain carpeting of elegant designs. There are woven spring mattresses on each bed. The furniture is of cherry, rich and elaborate. The Special Parlor is carpeted with Brussels. The furniture is of black walnut, covered with crimson plush. There is also an elegant upright piano, rose wood, of rich full tone. The spacious hall-ways on second and third floors are 20 feet wide, lighted from the roof and are carpeted in Brussels. The dining room is spacious, well ventilated with win- dows on each side, with inside blinds j the ceiling is lofty and finished in native wood, and laid oft' in a beautiful de- sign; the walls are of French gray with gilt mouldings. In the rear of this beautiful and cosey dining room is the carving room, and in the rear of this is the kitchen depart- ment so constructed that no odor arising from cooking can be discerned in the dining room. The inside walls of Hotel Albert are, with the exception of the dining room, white, in luird finish, and are in beautiful contrast with the rich bright cherry color of the wood work, and also with the furniture of same wood. In a word Hotel Albert is the neatest, most comfortable and the cosiest Hotel in tht' State of North Carolina. Too much credit cannot be awarded to the enterprising and energetic proprietors, Messrs. M. Patterson & Son, for the erection of this Hotel; they deserve success. HOTEL ALBERT, TEEMS OF BOAED. Two dollars, two and a half aud tliree dollars per day, according to location. ' EOUTES TO ^EW BEENE. Tliore are two ways, botli desirable, by wbicli persons can travel comfortably to New Berne; one route is from Goldsboro, Nortb Carolina, by way of the Atlantic and North Carolina Eailroad; another is, by way of Norfolk, Virginia, from thence to New Berne by the Old Dominion line of steamers. They will pass through the Albemarle aud Chesa- peake canal, through Pamlico sound and up the Neuse to New Berne. From New Berne thej^ can visit the different places on the Neuse aud Trent rivers by steam, and the sea coast bv tiie Atlantic and North Carolina Eailroad. H# NEW BERNE, N. C. GENERAL liEMAKKS. It lias been trutlitiilly said, that there is no space ol territory in any of the original thirteen States of the Ameri- can Union so little known, so little visited and seen by other than its residents, and of which the characters have been so little noticed or appreciated as Eastern North Carolina; and yet, there is no part of the entire Atlantic Sea Board that ofters as many indncements to emigrants of means; Avith all of her wealth of forests, ricli in valnable timber; her immense fisheries, her every vaiiety of soil— some of it the richest on eartli— capable of producing- all the great staples; her im- mense oyster-beds, as yet comparatively untouched; her unrivaled climate exempt alike from the chilling blasts of the North, and the torrid heats of the Gulf States; her extem^ive navigable rivers, bayous, bays and creeks, the ever swelling tide of emigration has never crossed her bojders. This tide has turned North and West until it crossed the continent, and i)eopled those vast solitudes with a race of dauntless energy and great aspiration; and new States were formed, cities rose on every hand, school houses multiplied, steam- boats plowed their way upon evei-y river, and the continent was spanned with an iron track, and the shrill whistle of the locomotive was heard bearing on its rumbling train the pro- ductions of tar oft' China and Japan. In the geographical centre of this magnificent region the city of New Berne is beautifully situated at the junction of N^euse and Trent rivers, the Neuse forming its eastern and northern, and the Trent its southern boundary— both wide and beautiful streams. The soil upon which it is built is light and sandy and gently slopes to the rivers, consequently the drainage is perfect. It is w^ell laid out; has twenty miles of streets, and they are made to conform to tlie course of both rivers, their general direction being north and south and east and west, or very nearly so. They are well shaded with maple, ash and huge spreading elm trees, with their branches almost interlacing, forming an arched canopy of verdure over the streets, hence the sobriquet of Elm City. 6 HOTEL ALBERT, The bouses are generally of wood, plain, old-l'asliioned square mansions, a few being in tbe cottage style. Many of tbem are embowered in evergreen creepers, and surrounded with elegant Hower yards; during the greater part of tbe year tbe city is a rose bed of be-auty. Sucb is tbe gentle miblness of tbe climate, tbat exotic plants, botb from tbe extreme nortb and tbe extreuie soutb, become aclimated, and roses, of wbicb tliPie are a great variety, bloom in tbe open air until tbe middle of December. Tbere are some line brick dwellings, and also quite a number of elegant brick stores. It is a strangely picturesque place, full of strong contrasts. Tbe plain, quiet, easy-going- ways of tbe old re(iime are in striking contrast witb tbe rusb, dasb and roar and tbe unceasing, energetic i)usb of tbe new era tbat bas dawned upon tbe people. Several of tbe streets are sbelled, making elegant drives. Owing to tbe situation of Xew Berne at tbe junction of two wide rivers, and only 28 statute miles from tbe ocean, tbe Avinters are very mild; tbe air is crisp and bra(dng, tbe average beat is 40 degrees in winter. Spring opens in P'eb- ruary, and in Marcb tbe flower yards put on tbeir mantle of beauty, and tbe trees" are in full verdure. During tbe sum- mer montbs tbe beat is not as oi)pressive as it is in tbe Nortbern States, and tbe extreme bot weatber lasts but a sbort time. Sun strokes are of very rare occurrence, and are almost unknown. Tbe average beat in tbe summer montbs is 75 degrees. Tbe proximity to tbe ocean and tbe country being penetrated in every direction by broad sounds and water courses, modifies tbe beat. Tbe prevailing winds during tbe summer montbs are from tbe soutb-west and soutb-east, and tbey are of daily regularity. A perfectly calm summer nigbt is of rare occur- rence in tbe city of New Berne and is considered pbenome- nal. Tbere are but fCAv still calm days in tbe course of a year, tbe number being mucb less tban immediately on tbe sea coast. The winter may be termed the only season of 084! ms. NEW BERNE, N. C. New Berne is a fine resort for those afflicted with or disposed to pnhnonary diseases. Dnrin^? the months of Oc. tober, November, and part of December, the climate is of such delicious softness that mere existence becomes a pleas- ure: the atmosphere is singularly bri^'ht and clear, and such is its transparency, that objects at a great distance seem near. Out door labor during' the entire year is very seldom interrupted either by excessive heat or excessive cold; there are more woiking days in the course of a year than in the more Northern States. A g-reat deal of ignorance exists as regards the health- fulness of Eastern North Carolina; the uninformed think it the land of pestilence; this ignorance is now being rapidly dispelled, but was at one time so widely spread that a person living in the interior of the State, who contemplated a journey east, invariably made his will before he started and solicited the prayers of the iaithful for his safe return to his mountain home. If his stay was prolonged east he generally improved in his physique before he turned his steps home- ward. We judge a tree by its fruits, and we form our opinion of the healthfulness of a city from the general appearance of its inhabitants, their longevity and the death rate; upon this basis, tlie city of New Berne can make as good a showing as any city in the United States. The diseases so prevalent in the Northern States and in the hilly and mountain regions, such as typhoid fever, consumption, pneumonia, diphtheria and scarlet fever have no abiding place in New Berne. It is an indisputable fact, that the only fevers prevalent here are of a mild type and yield quickly to medical treatment. It is generally conceded by medical men of intelligence, that pine regions, or the regions in which the turpentine pines are the principal forest growth, are favorable to health and longevity. The balsamic eli'ect of these trees is soothing to weak and delicate constitutions. The good effects of the winter climate of New Berne on persons from abroad, having- weak lungs, is noticeable, and a prolonged stay here is gen- erally followed by a permanent cure. The reasons are simply these : New Berne stands upon ground that was once a pine 8 HOTEL ALBERT, forest; she is surrouuded in every directiou to the distance of 30 or more miles by forests, the growth of which is mostly the turpentine pine; two sides of the city are washed by broad running rivers. She has daily the sea breeze; and the dranage is perfect; in a word it may be asserted without fear of successful contradiction, that there is no part of the United States where pulmonary patients stand a better chance of being cured,— we will go further and say,— as good a chance of being cured as in New Berne. It is a sanatarium. As evidence of the truthfulness of this statement, New Berne w^ith its suburbs contains 90U0 people, and the county of which she is the chief town has a population of twenty thousand, and yet there are but eight practicing physicians. These assertions are made in the full sincerity of belief that they are true. Any one can, with reasonable prudence, enjoy as good health in any portion of Eastern North Carolina, to say nothing of New Berne, as tlkey can anywhere in the Western or Northern part of the United States. There are some very good schools in New Berne in which the high branches of education are taught, aud the charges for tuition are low. The people of New Berne are justly proud of their two steam lire engine companies. The supply of water is un- limited from twenty-six unexhaustible bored wells, to say nothing of the two rivers. The society of the city is excellent. The new court house is an elegant building, the finest one of the kind in the State. The new Academy building is also a fine structure and will accommodate 600 pupils. There is one National bank and one private banking house, one cotton and grain exchange, one theatre, one daily and three weekly papers^ two book and job printing offices. The latitude is 35° 6^ 15^^: longitude 77° '1' 30^^ west. NEW BERNE, N. C. CEDAE GROVE CEMETERY. Tliis large and beautiful resting place for tlie dead, was presented to the city of New Berne by Obrist Cburcb, the first Colonial Cburcb iu New Berne. It is partly surrounded by a wall built of conglomerate sbell rock. Tbe gateway is an arcbed entrance of stone, tbat daily and nigbtly drips drops of water as tbougb it was weeping for tbe departed ones tbat lie witbin tbe enclosure. Tbere is not a more interesting spot in New Berne, and none so dear to tbe people. Upon entering, tbe ground rises gently, and tben falls gracefully away into soft slopes of green. On your rigbt at tbe entrance, is tbe tomb of tbe dis- tinguisbed Jobn Stanly, wbo was suddenly stricken witb paralysis in tlie bour of bis triumpb in debate. Wbile we look upon bis bonored tomb, we recall ''bis flowing courtesy to all men," bis grand and brilliant career in political life, '•bis rare affability and temper in debate tbat awakened ad- miration among bis opponents." Near bim is tbe resting place of tbe mucb loved and bigbly gifted H. T. Guion. On your left is tbe tomb of Major Jobn Daves, one of tbe gallant leaders of tbe band of beroes tbat stormed Stoney Point in tbe days tbat tried men's souls. Fartber on are tbe tombs of tbe Spaigbts, tbe Wasbingtons, tbe Sbepards and Bryan, all distinguisbed in law and in tbe service of the State. Tbe courtly, dignified, learned and uprigbt Manly sleeps in a vault. Fartber on is tbe sarcophagus of tbe great Gaston, tbe cotemporary of Clay, Webster, Calboun and Marshall, whose name lives in history and in song and story. In front of yon, on a swelling knoll, is the monument to tbe Confederate dead, surmounted by a life-size marble statue of a soldier; and underneath repose the remains of men who fell in tbe "Lost Cause," and now await tbe last bugle call. " On Fame's eternal camping ground, Their silent tents are spread; And Glory guards with solemn round The bivouac of the dead." On vour rigbt is tbe monument of Jobn Daves Hughes who 10 HOTEL ALBERT, lost liis life in the great storm at Beaufort, North Carolina, August 18th, 1879, while saving helpless women and children from a watery grave. "Greater love hath no man than this; that a man lay down his life for his friends." In that howl- ing tempest and vortex of raging seas, he was swept to destruction. The sea gave up its dead, the gallant Christian youth sleeps with his forefathers, and on the desolate sand waste the murmuring waves softly chant his requiem. Earthed on is the tomb of the talented and much loved E. S. Donuell, whom the people of North Carolina delighted to honor. In this sacred spot is the resting place of New Berne's Christian poetess, Mrs. Susan J. Hancock, who sung her song in sweet and lofty strains; also the graves of the wonderfully gifted and accomplished poetess and writer, Mrs. Mary Bayard Clarke and that of her husband, the learned and gallant Col. William J. Clarke. On all sides are tall graceful monuments shining in whiteness and i)urity. Ven- erable cedars, the trembling aspen, the silver maple, the funereal cypress, tbe broad spreading elm, and "The dew dropping willows, Like fond weeping mourners, Bend over the gravies." Beneath you and around you are flowers of a thousand varying hues. At night the grand old grove is vocal with the notes of the mocking bird, chanting its evening song of praise. The people of New Berne love this City of the Dead; in it repose her dead for the past century; it tells them of their great statesmen and their heroic soldiers " Who sleep their last sleep And have fought their last battle," and it tells them of loved ones now aone. NEW BERNE, N. C. 11 THE NATIONAL CEMETEKY. '' DULCE ET DECORUM EST PRO PATRIA MORI.'' On tlie outskirts of the city is the National Cemetery, nearly eight acres in extent, in which repose the remains of three thousand two hundred and seventy-four soldiers of the Federal Government. Tlie shape of the Cemetery is that of an oblong' square; the land rises gradually from the entrance gate, giving it somewhat the appearance of a vast amphi- theatre. The grounds are surrounded by a brick wall, wrought in panels; near the entrance, is a beautiful cottage built of shell rock, embowered in trailing ivy, running roses and the sweet scented jasmine; and around it are parterres of choice exotics. Inside of the walls of the cemetery on three sides, are hedges of the maguiticent evergreen euony- mus, kept, as are the entire grounds, in perfect order. The cemetery is laid out in oblong squares, so as to coiiform in shape with the outer wall; the avenues run at right angles, and are planted with many varieties of trees, forming arched canopies of green verdure. On the right hand at the entrance, there is a magnificent grove of maple trees, one hundred and ten in number, planted so as to form a cross, called the "Sylvan Shade;" the design is unique. The country outside the limits of the enclosure has a peculiar beauty of its own; it is gently undulating; rising into small hills and then gracefully falling away into level plains, dotted here and there over the land-scape, with groves of green. In the middle of the grounds of this beautiful cemetery is a tall flag-staff with the flag of the United States flying in graceful folds. " Forever float that Standard Sheet." On the left of the flag-staft' is a monument of granite erected to the memory of liobert F. Lehman, a civilian, who enacted a prominent and useful part in the history of the State. Near him is a monument to the memory of David 12 HOTEL ALBERT, Heafcou, who was a friend to the State of his adoption. There is also another monument to the memory of a gallant Irishman. Around these monuments sleep the remains of over three thousand soldiers, whose names, nativity and regiment, are designated on marble head-boards. The graves of the un- known dead are designated by square blocks of marble. Interspersed throughout the grounds are over one hun- dred varieties of evergreen shrubbery, selected with great care, and planted with skill and taste. At short distances apart on the main avenue, are coi)ies of appropriate verses, written in large characters on painted stands. We select the following lines as exceedingly neat and apx^ropriate: '• The neighing troops, the flashing blade, The bugle's stii-ving blast, The charge, — the dreadful cannonade, The dm nnd shout are past." And they are i^ast, w^e trust forever. .No more will this mighty continent rock to and fro with the tram}) of contend- ing, hosts. "The old Ship of State" is now sailing on in smooth seas of i)ea(;e, plenty and prosperity, and the starry Hag waves over a united country. " Now give our voices to the breeze— our banner to the sky; ^ Let stars to kindred stars bear up our orisons on high, God save our sacred Union ; the gift our fathers gave. For which they fought and fell in many a hero grave." NEW BERNE, N. C. 13 SCENEEY. The visitor to Kastoru North Cai-oliua, will not S(u; what is f>:onerally termed line scenery ; but tlu^-e is a something- in the landscape, that never fails to attract "the notice and exciter the admiration of the stranger. There are no snow-capped mountains, no billowy i-olling country, whose bill-tops are covered with um- bi-ageous oaks, and whose sloping sides are clotlied in green. There are no laughing rivulets, no lea,ping cascades, no bubbling fountains, no sparkling brooks, no fairy dells; but there are wide, grand rolling rivers, whose distant shores sink below the liorizon. There itre deep creeks and bayous whose "glassy surface is scarcely disturbed by a ruder breath than tlie zephyrs of Spring," whose banks are fringed Avith waving cane and giant grasses, and dotted with magnificent green and scarlet hollies, with huge poplars, graceful maples, and the funereal cypress, and are festooned from tree-top to tree-top with the fragrant yellow jasmine, the luxurant creeping bamboo, or the wild muscadine grape, forming a deep and dense shade impervious to the rays of a summer sun. I'liere are wide and grassy savannas dotted with groves of pine and carpeted with an endless variety of gorgeously brilliant flowers, whose beauty is enhanced 1)y the transparent purity of the air, and the genial warmtli of the sun. There are forests of giant oaks and mammoth pines draped in moss, tall, graceful juni- pers and loi-dly cedars that were venerable patriarchs of the forest when the tide of emigration first broke u])on our shores. There is something awe-inspiring in the solemn stillness of these pathless solitudes; no sound is heard save the sigh- ing of the wind in the overshadowing canopj'- of green, or the lonely booming echo of decayed falling limits. There are placid lakes whose watei's are of crys- talline purity, and whose shores are of emerald hue. There are grand inland seas, whose rolling waves are sometimes lashed into fury by the howling tempest, and upon whose outer bounds the surge of Old Ocean rolls its wild, pro- found, eternal l)ass. HUNTING. The greater part of Eastern Korth Carolina being in primeval forest, abounds in game of the larger class. Deer, foxes, raccoons and opossum are plentiful. Wild cats and bears are rather too numerous, in some parts, for the comfort of thetarmers; besides, there is a "considerable sprinkling" of alligators. The sooner the three last mentioned are removed from the face of the country, the better it will be for those who live in the chiared swamp lands or on lands bordered by marshy creeks. The privilege of hunting on nine-tenths of the land can be had, by merely requesting pei'mission of the owners; generally, the owners will gladly partici- pate in the sport. The usual weapon in use here is the double-barrel breech- loader wuth fixed ammunition. Kifies are seldom used. There are great quan- tities of feathered game. The rivers, sounds and creeks abound in various kinds of water fowl. It may he salely asserted, and without fear of successful contra- diction, that there is no State lying on the Atlantic seaboard, possibly with the exception of Florida, that abounds so plentifully with game of so many varieties, as Eastern North Carolina, and none in which the facilitiesof getting through the countrj- with light draft boats and all other appurtenances required by hunting pai-ties, are as great, and none in which the expenses are as light. The hunter so far from being deemed a source of revenue as he is in Florida, is looked upon more in the light of a visitor, and treated accordingly. Near Ncnv Berne, on the line of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroail, is the best hunting ground in the State. 14 HOTEL ALBE-RT, FISHING. The waters of Eastern North Carolina abound in fish, and probably there are a greater variety than in any other part of the world, and there is no pursuit followed more ardently by the people, both for pleasure and profit. The creeks abound in black bass and speckled trout. In the rivers, at certain seasons, every variety of salt water fish are caught. So extensively are tish caught in the waters of the Neuse and Trent rivers, that the business gives eniplojanent to a great number of persons, and the shipping of them to the interior of the State the year round, packed in ice during the summer months, is followed to a great extent. There are no laws in North Carolina prohibiting fishing with hook and line, the favorite mode in vogue with sportsmen. Tlie statutory enactments apply to fish- ing with nets and seines. YACHTING. No part of the Atlantic Seaboard offers finer cruising grounds for yachts of light draught, than the waters of Eastern North Carolina. Neuse river, ten miles wide at its mouth, with a course of eighty miles to go and return. The broad Pamlico sound, the placid Pamlico river, Core sound and Beaufort harbor, with towns and watering places situated upon them all, make Eastern North Carolina a delightful place of resort for yachtmen. They may come here and rest assured that they will get all the wind and rough seas they may care to encounter. At the mouth of Neuse river, with the wind blowing from the noith-east, the seas run sufficiently high to put a good size yacht's bowsprit and cat-heads out of sight. The great advantage here attendant upon yachting is the absence of calm weather; there being but few days in the year, that there is not a good sailing- breeze. FOllT BAUNWELL. This fort is immediately on Neuse river, about 18 miles from New Berne by water, and about same distance by land. It is built on a bank nearly twenty feet above the river. Its location shows that the Tuscarora Indians had some con- siderable knowledge of the art of fortification. It was assailalile only on two sides; the front was pi-otected by the river, and one side was protected by a watercourse. On the top of the embankment was erected a palisade of stakes driven in the ground. Only two sides of the fort now remain, the rest having disappeared under cultivation. The South Carolina troops who assailed and captured it, were under the command of Col. John Barnwell who, from his gal- lantry in this affair, won the name of "Tuscarora John," and the fort was subst- qiiently called Fort Barnwell. As he is an imposing figure in the early annals of the settlement of North Carolina, some account of the distinguished family from which he sprung, might interest tlie reader. The family of Barnwell or Barneveld is ol Norman exfraction. The ancestor of the family came into England with William of Normandy and was with liim when victory perched upon his baimer on tlie fatal field of Hastings. The family NEW BERNE, N. C. 15 won honors, laiuls and distinction. Another of the family, Sir Michael de Barne- Avcll, made Ireland his home and fonnded the baronetcies of Kinf?sland and Ti-imblestone. He was a companion-in-arms with Richard de Clare, Earl of StriK"'. known as Stron^bow. They were faithful to the Honse ot Stuart, fought in its defence and lost lands, wealth and power. Another of the family, John Barnwell or Barnewell, is distinguished in the history of the United Netherlands during her terrible struggle with Spain, whose power then overshadowed the earth. During the dark days of the Revolutionary war the Barnwells were prom- inent in war and in council. When the British threatened, if the Americans re- taliated for the base and cruel murder of Colonel Hayne, they would sacrifice the American prisoners then in their possession; among these prisoners were three Barnwells, descendants of "Tuscann-a John." The prisoners unanimously signed a paper requesting the Continental authorities to take no thouglit of them, but to act as they thought best for the welfare of their country. The Barnwells have been distinguished not only on the battle field but also as jurists, and statesmen and Christian Divines, and their ardent, devoted conse- craticwi of their all "to the service of Christ shed a radiance around the old Nor- man name purer and holier than the fame of the proudest conqueror that earth can boast." 16 HOTEL ALBERT, NEW BERNE, N. C. 17 HISTOKIOAL SKETCH OF NEW BEKI^E, N. C. The lirst periiiaiient settlement on the peninsular bounded by the waters of the Neuse and Trent rivers, now known as New Berne, was made in the year 1710, by a body ol German and Swiss emigrants; the tormer were from Heidelberg, on the Neckar, in the Grand Duchy of Baden; they had been made the victims of religious persecution be- cause they could not change their religion with every change of their rulers— their sin being Protestantism. While they sutfered religious persecution on the one hand, on the other the French arjny considered them as German enemies, and desolated and harried the country. Their condition excited the pity and sorrow of the Queen of England, and she, by proclamation, invited them to England and offered them protection in her dominions. They accepted the offered pro- tection and about twelve thousan(l took refuge iu England. At this time it so happened that a Swiss Nobleman, Christopher de Graffenned, Irom the canton of Berne was in Eugland with a number of his countrymen tliat were anxious to emigrate. There was also another Swiss gentleman iu London, Lewis Michel, who had been an officer in the Swiss army and knew America well, having been an agent for the Swiss goveinment to ffnd a large tract of laud either in Pennsylvania, Virginia or Carolina, suitable for a colony. De Graffenried and Lewis Michel bought from the Lords Proprietors ten thousand acres of land to be laid off' m one body on or between the Cape Fear and Neuse rivers or any of their branches. They paid one pound sterling for each 100 acres, and bound themselves to a quit rent of a six pence sterling yearly for every hundred acres; and the Sur- veyor General of the colony was ordered to lay off' for them in addition 100,000 acres to be reserved for tliem for twelve years. De Graffenried and Michel agreed to transport six hun- dred and tifty Germans and Swiss and give each family 250 acres of laud live years for nothing^ and after live years at a rent of two pence per acre; and still further agreed to furn- ish them gratis with tools for agriculture and building, and to supply them also with cattle, hogs and sheep for which they should not pay until seven years after receiving them; and also to supply them with necessary food for themselves and families to be [>aid for two years after their arrival. The Lords Proprietors were anxious for the Germans to 18 HOTEL ALBERT, emigrate as tliey wanted occupants for their laud. The Queen was anxious, as emigTation would increase tlie strength of her colonies; and De Gratieuried and Michel were also anxious, as they expected to make money out of it; consequently they readily acceded to the proposition made by the Comniissioners appointed by the Queen, to solicit subscriptions from the benevolent, to aid the poverty stricken exiles, and to make their pathway pleasant to their future home in the wilds of North Carolina. The Commissioners of the Queen agreed to furnish each emigrant, old and young, twenty shillings sterling in clothes and money, and to pay De Graffenried and Michel live pounds and ten shillings sterling a head for transportation. In December, 1710, these emigrants landed at the con- fluence of Neuse and Trent rivers, at or near what is now known as Union Point, and New Berne was begun. Little did they expect the dire and dreadful calamity that aw aited them. In 1711 the Indians became restive at the encroach- ment of the whites upon their lauds; many of them had been employed by the whites as servants, and perfect confidence was reposed in their iidelity. They were permitted to have free ingress or egress to or from their dwellings, and^upon the Aviiole their physical condition was much improved. Not- withstanding tliis kind treatment, a general massacre was planned among them for the extermination of the white settlers on the Koanoke, Pamlico and Neuse rivers. The conspiracy extended among tlie Tuscaroras on the lioanoke, the Pamlicoes on river of same name, the Cotechneys who lived in what is now known as Greene county, the Cores on the Neuse and its lower Avaters, the Mattamuskeefcs and Matchapungoes,— the former in what is now known as Hyde county, and the latter on the Pungo river in that part of the State known now as Beaufort county. The day of slaughter was appointed; the savages to the number of sixteen hundred, their whole available strength, divided themselves into small but overi)Owering parties and commenced their work of death. The suri)rise was as great as it was terrible; the whites were living, as they thought, in perfect security and did not dream of any dissatisfaction among the Indians, so securely had they kept secret their terrible purposes. The time appointed by the Indians for simultaneous ac- tion, was the day preceding the new moon, which would occur ou the 22d of September, 1711. When the appointed day for slaughter came, twelve hundred Tuscaroras Irom the Eoanoke, seperated into small parties, set out on their mis- sion of death. There had been no outward manifestation of NEW BEENE, N. C. 19 hostility among the ludiansj individual Indians were sent among- the whites to reconnoitre, and as night approached, numbers ai)poared upon pretence of seeking provisions, but not in such quantities as to cause suspicion or alarm. At sunrise, which was the preconcerted time lor simultaneous butchery, those Indians in the employ of tlie whites, — and there was scarcely a house in the settlement without them — gave a signal to which a response was given in the terrible war-whoop of the savages, and the dreadful work began. The carnage was terrible; the slaughter was indiscriminate; gray haired age, young men, feeble women and innocent children all tared alike; but few escaped. One hundred and thirty were butchereil on the lioanoke. The Swiss and Germans around New Berne, to the number of sixty, were murdered. The Hugenot settlements on the Pamlico suffered terribly, and the Indians only desisted from their bloody work from drunkenness and fatigue. The success of this massacre aroused the Indians throughout Virginia and even as far north as the colony of NcAv York. They were like hungry tigers thirsting for blood, and it required all the address and vigorous exertions of Gov. Si)otswood of the Virginia colony and the Governor of South Carolina to quell the war-spirit iimong the tribes in their respective colonies. The Governor of South Carolina sent an armed force of whites, and some Indian allies whose services had been secured, under the command of Col. John Barnwell; these, together with the few remaining white settlers formed a force sufficiently strong to cope with the Indians. In the mean time the Indians had fortitled themselves in a strong palisade fort about eighteen miles from New Berne, now known as Fort Barnwell, and the whites marched to attack them in their fortitication. The Indians being confident of their strength marched out and gave battle and w^ere de- feated with great slaughter. They retired to their fortitica- tion, and Barnwell laid seige. The Indians, after again sus- taining great loss, were comi)elled to surrender. Notwithstanding the disastrous defeat at Fort Barnwell the Indians continued to wage war with so much vigor that it was necessary for the Governor and Council to solicit further assistance from South Carolina; it was obtained and an additional force marched from there under the command of Col. Moore. Ui)on his arrival at New Berne, he ascer- tained that the Cotechney tribe, having heard of his coming, had strongly fortified themselves where the town of Snow Hill now^ stands in Greene county. He immediately marched against them, invested the fort and alter a stubbon resistance 20 HOTEL ALBERT, upon the part of the Indians, succeeded in capturing it to- gether with 800 prisoners, many of whom were made slaves.. The Indians, though defeated in two battles, were not yet humble(^ the Mattamuskeets, the Matcbapungoes and the Cores still held out and continued to wage war. Col. Moore, after the defeat of the Cotechneys, turned his attention to the Mattamuskeets and Matchapungo tribes, and after a weary and painful march came upon them in the swamps of Hyde county and defeated and dispersed both tribes. From there he marched against the Cores who had been again en- gaged in murdering the whites in the vicinity of New Berne and on the lower waters of the Neuse. He found them in Carteret county, near where the town of iieaufort now stands, gave battle and obtained a victory. This was the last Indian war in the vicinity of New Berne, and the last in the colony of North Carolina. The Indians were, after the defeat at Beaufort, completely humbled and sued for peace. The Tuscarora tribe emigrated to New York and joined the tribes now known as the Six Nations. The Cores, Cotechney and Mattamuskeet Indians were settled around Mattamus- keet Lake, on a tract of ten thousand acres of land. A few days before the time tixed for the massacre of the whites, De Grattenried and the Surveyor General, Lawson, left New Berne and proceeded up Neuse river to make dis- coveries as to how f;u- the stream was navigable, and also to' inspect the lands. After journeying the greater part of the day, they concluded to spend the first night at an Indian vilhige called "Corutra." They were met by two Indians, who were soon joined by a large party, all armed. The Baron and Lawson became alarmed and attempted to retreat to their boat; tlie Indians anticipating this movement, seized their arms and provisions, took tliem prisoners, carried tliem to a village and gave them up to a chief. On the succeeding day the Indians held council, and the Baron and Lawson were examined as to their intentions in proceeding up the Kiver Neuse. The Baron replied, and said his object was to find a better and shorter road to Virginia. TJie Indians then complained of the colonists generally, and of Lawson particularly; said that he was the man who sold their lands. The next day the Baron and Lawson hoped to be permitted to return home, but were disappointed and subjected to another examination. One of the Core Indians whom Law- son had offended by reprimanding him for some misconduct, produced an unfriendly feeling toward the prisoners. This Indian, who understood a little English, oveiliearing a con- versation between De Grattenried and Lawson represented to his countrymen that they were speaking of them in a NEW BERNE, N. C. 21 (lisrespecti'iil maimer. The Indians became enraged, and although De Graffenried said the statement made by the Indian was untrue, they fell u])oii them, beat them nnmerci- lully, and condemned them to death. Lawson and the negro servant of the Baron were executed. The Baron escaped by claiming to be a King of the Germans and demanded by what authority they could put a Kiug to death, when tlie King had broken no law of their making, or committed no offence toward them. The mode of Lawson's deatli was terrible. The Indians stuck his body full of liue s|)liuters made of pitch pine, of tlie kind known as lightwood, and set them on tire. Lawson, in his letters on North Carolina, had repre- sented the Indians as kind and gentle in their dispositions. They now gave him terrible evidence that they were as re- vengeful and blood thirsty when aroused as the tiger in his jungle. Of the arrest of De Graffenried and the murder of Law- son and the negro, the wliites of New Berne knew uothiug; had they been aware of it, their suspicions that tlie Indians were bent on some treachery might have been aroused suffi- ciently to have caused them to make some preparation for defence; but unhappily the only warning they had was the terrible war-whoop. For the next fifteen or twenty years there is but little data — but little known of the history of New Berne. De Graffenried not much relishing his experince in colonizing among Indians, mortgaged his property to Col. Pollock, one of the Lords Proprietors deputies and commander-in-chief of the colony. We think the colony must have flourished somewhat, as the legislature in 1723, then in session at Edenton, passed •'An Act for the better settling of the town of New Berne in the precinct of Craven." By said act it was incorporated as a town and lots were designated for a court house, church and market |)lace. On the 6th March, 173S, the Legislatures which had heretofore assembled in Edenton and Batli met in New Berne and several im])ortant measures were acted upon and adopted. For several years thereafter the Legislature met in New Berne and in 1740 ordered four lots to be sold for the purpose of « 'reefing a church. From this time we have some data, and well attested tradition. Tliough a small place she attracted some attention trom abroad. Well attested tradition and old letters tell us of her foreign business and business coast- vrise. 22 HOTEL ALBERT, In 1743 we fiud from the records of tlie court that there were several "Taverns" and "Ordinaries" in the town and the i)rices for entertainment were regulated by law. The following is the schedule of prices: S. D. Lodging one night, 2 One hot diet, - - 5 One cold diet, 2 Pasturage for a horse, 2 One quart Madeira wine, 20 " " Claret " - - - - . 20 . Kum punch with loaf sugar - - - - 5 " t* " brown sugar, - - - - 4 Half pint rum, 4 Beer, 3 Corn per quart, The above, we imagine, were the prices in the depreciated currency of the day. In the years 1745 and 1747 the Legislature again met in New Berne. In 1749 the first printing i)ress in the colony was intro- duced into the town by James Davis, wlio issued a weekly paper called "The North Carolina Gazette." The ofhce was located on the lot on the corner of Broad and East Front streets, south side.- Davis died in 1783, much respected on account of his usefulness and parity of character. Hogs, at this time, mast have been troublesome, as the Commissioners of the town met to ascertain Avho were "in- clinable" to enclose the towji with a fence running from river to river "to keep out hogs and wild animals," to be built of good, strong, substantial rails, said fence to be six feet high and "two strong gates to be made in the same manner as Doctor Haslin's" The builder was allowed fifty pounds for the erection of the fence, and gate keepers were a})pointed. The number of cattle, sheep, horses and hogs each resident was allowed to keep in town was regulated by hiAv. In 1752 a public pound was erected, and all stray aninuils were caught and sold. By enactment of the Commissioners it Avas ordered, that all owners of lots should cut down the trees on their premis»\s and clear the lots up, under penalty of twenty shillings for all dereliction; and the Commissioners also required that all wooden chimneys be j)ulled down. The following are ex- tracts from the re})orts of the Commissioners in 1753: "Ordered, That J. Davis, aj?ent, coUect the several sums subscribed by the several persons for making the fence, and that John Bryan and Benjamin Foril- ham keep the fence in order for six months, and when the gates are finished, to keep them shut." NEW BERNE, N. C. 23 " Ordered, That the Town Constable warn the several and respective masters and mistresses offamiles and others liable by law, to meet at the Court House on Thursday next, at 10 o'elook, and bring with them all their male taxables, pro- vided with grubbing- hoes and axes to clear the streets of the town under penaltj'- by law." Ill 1754 tlier^ was a meeting of the Legislature and Gov. Arthur J)obbs was inaugurated. He brought with him as a present from King George to the eoh)ny several cannon and one thousand muskets. About this time a little incident occurred that aroused some commotion in New Berne. In- structions had been received to fix on a more convenient and accessible location for tlie seat of government. A place called "Tower Hill" in Greene county was selected, but noth- ing more ever came of the instructions. An act was i)assed in 1764 by the Legislature to erect a school house in New Berne. Nortli Carolina was then with- out a public school. This school still exists in the city; and in the latter part of the 18tli century the "old brick academy" as it is called, was erected. Gov. Dobbs died in 17(34 and was succeeded by William Tryon. After Tryon came into oftice a s<dieme for the erection of an elegant i)alace entered his imagination and he bent every energy of his mind to accomplish his object, and even the influeuce of the King of England was brought to bear upon the people; and Lady Tryon and her sister, Lady Esther Wake, were lavish in their blandishments on the legislators to eft'ect the object of Governor Tryon. Plans and S[jeciticatious were imi)orted Irom England together with an architect, eTohn Hawks, grandfather to the eminent divine Dr. Francis L. Hawks. During Tryon's administration the building was tinished, and at an expense that bore terribly on the limited means of the people. A picture of the palace and its surroundings is given on 16th page. Its cost ap- proximated one hundred thousand dollars, a very large sum of money for tlie then few inhabitants of North Carolina to raise, to say nothing of the taxes levied to assist the British government to carry on war in other, portions of the conti- nent. It was, when finished, the llnest residence in the colonies and was inrnished in a style both costly and mag- niticent, and the relics now in })ossession of some few families in New Berne have scarcely an equal in the extravagance of the present day. The contract for building the palace speci- fied that it should be 87 feet front and 59 feet deei), and three stories high with suitable buildings for ottices, etc. The stable, wliich is still standing, and is now used as a chapel, was connected Avith the palace by a curviform colonnade, and the servants' hall was connected in the same manner. The stable has resisted the inroads of time, and is in the same 24 HOTEL ALBERT, style of arcliitectiire as when left by Tryon, with the excep- tion of the enlargement of the windows, and some interior alterations. Says Ebenezer Hazzard, in his Journal for 1777, when he visited the palace: ''You enter a hall in which are four niches for statues. The chimney breasts of this council chamber, dining hall and drawing room, and the cornices of thes'3 rooms were of white marble. The chimney breast of the council chamber was the most elaborate, being orna- mented by two Ionic columns beJow and four columns above, with beautiful entabhiture architrave and Irieze. Over the inner door or ante-chamber or entrance hall was a tablet with a Latin inscription showing that the palace was dedi- cated to Sir William Draper, the conqueror of Manilla," and also the following lines in Latin which were written by JJraper, then on a visit to Tryon : " In the reigii of a monarch who goodness disclosed, A free happy people to dread tyrants opposed, Have to virture and merit erected this dome; May the owner and honsehold make this their loved home- Where I'eligion, the arts and the laws may unite Future ages to Uve in sweet peace and delight." The above translation was made by Judge Martin, the historian of Xorth Carolina, who A'isited the edifice in 1783 in company with the unfortunate Don Francisco dc Miranda. That gentleman assured Martin that the structure had no equal in South America." The above statement we copy from Lossing's "Field Book of the Kevolution," who subjoins in a note that Sir William Draper was an excessively vain man; upon a ceno- taph at his seat at Clifton Down, near Bristol, England, he had this inscription placed; "Here lies the mother of Sir William Draper." Tiie inscription over the door of the ante-cLamber of the palace was so great a burlesque upon the then existing state of aftairs, that it excited the ridicule of the people; Judge Maurice Moore, of the Superior court, over the signature of '^Atticus," addressed him a letter of withering scorn, scarcely without a parallel, unless in the celebrated letters of Junius. We extract the following: "Your pride has as often exposed you to ridicule as the rude petulance of your disposition has to contempt. Your solicitude about the title of His Excel, lency for Mrs. Tryon, and the ari-ogant reception yon gave to a respectable com- pany at an entertainment of your own making, seated with your lady by you ON ELBOW-ciiAiRS IX THE MIDDLE OF THE ROOM, bespeak a littleness of mind, which, believe me sir, when blended with the dignity and importance ot your office renders you supremely ridiculous." The arrogant and overbearing conduct of Tryon, both in private and ])ublic life was so great, that the people were aroused and became violent and disorderly in their demon- strations; this feeling extended throughout the colony. The NEW BERNE, N. 0. liorde of tax gatherers that had been let h^ose among the })eoi)le, (leiiiandiiig iHegal fees for their services, aroused the l)eople in tlie interior of the State to armed resistance. The most obnoxious of these scoundrels was one p]dward Fanning, a lawyer of ability who had grown rich by extortion. After repeated promises on the part of Tryon to ameliorate the condition of the i)eople, and as often broken, they would not stand his tyranny any longer. They armed themselves, and were styled Regulators and were guilty of a few acts of law- lessness. Tryon, upon receipt of intelligence that the Regulators were on their way to New Berne, having heard that their representative (Husband) had been imprisoned, became alarmed, and proceeded to fortify New Berne. He assembled the militia of the adjoining counties and marched against them and found them encamped in Alamance, and upon their petitioning for redress, met them with a demand to lay down their arms and disperse. During the conference with the Regulators, Tryon be- came enraged at some plain talk on the part of one Robert Thompson, an amiable but bold man in his speech, Avho had gone to Tryon's camp as an agent to negotiate and upon his attempting to return to his friends Tryon seized a musket from the hands of one of his soldiers and shot Thompson dead ; he then took counsel of his passions and gave the word FIRE upon the Regulators. The militia hesitated, and Tryon became maddened with rage, rose in his stirrups and shouted, "Fire on them or on me.'' The tiring then became general ; the Regulators soon exhausted their amunition and beat a retreat. Tryon lost sixty men in killed and wounded; the Regulators lost nine in killed. This was the first RATTLE OF THE REVOLUTION, fought 16th May, 1771. As soon as the battle was over Tryon executed seven of the prisoners without even the form of a trial. He had been styled by the Cherokee Indians "The Great Wolf of North Carolina," a title well deserved for his many cruel acts. He was soon appointed Governor of the Colony of New York, and left much to the joy of the people. During the Revolutionary war he was guilty of many unnecessary acts of wanton cruelty to the people of the Northern Colonies; he burned Continental village in New York; his hatred to Americans amounted to insanity; he l)lotted the murder of Washington; he burned the village of Danbury in Connecticut; he plundered the village of Stam- ford; layed the town of Fairtield in ashes, and plundered the 2(> HOTEL ALBERT, town of iN^orwalk, all in the colony of Coiiuecticnt. Siicli is the record of this brutal wretch. Of all the officers of Great Britain who foiii»ht against the colonies, he was the most vindicave and brutal; even the cruel (Jol. Tarlton was an Angel of Mercy in comparison with him. We have been thus par- ticular in giving some account of this man, tor tlie reason tnat his history and his oftlcial military acts are part of the history of ^cw Berne. He was succeeded by Martin, who, to his credit, endeavored to allay tiie disturbance of the people, but was, as all ot tuc otiier iioyal Governors, too much restricted by his instructions; but the people were now thor- ougliiy aroused and ready to dare and to do anything' that would hamper or obstruct the British authority. The hrst legislature that ever met. in oNorth Carolina iiKlependent of Koyal authority, met in New Berne on the ii5th day of August, 1774. The convention that had been called by the people a lew months beiore and was presided over by John fiarvey, oi Terquimans, was again called, and met at the same time as the legislature. This convention had been called lor the purpose oi sending- delegates to the Continen- tal Congress. Governor Martin denounced the Continental Congress as ^'seditious and wicked" and endeavored to keep the two assemblies then in JSew Berne distinct, lie entreated the legislative body 'to discountenance the convention of the other deputies chosen by the people and in lirm and respect- ful language urged the people ''to remember their allegiancje and to iaithfuliy maintain it." His appeals were without the hoped for results, both legislature and convention were too intimately allied in sentiment to act in opposition to each other. The Governor then <lissolved the legislature on the 8th of April 1771. The Governor and the people were now i airly at issue, and fearing for his safety, he tied to Fort Johnson, on the Cape I'ear, and hnally took refuge on the British sloop of war "Cruiser" and from there fulminated his proclamations. The war clouds that for several years had hovered over the country, now burst with fury upon the colonists. The battle shout of victory that went up from the plains of Lex- ington resounded in clarion notes throughout the land. The news spread east, west, north and south. OuAvard it sped its way south through rocky glens, over hills and dales, over the wide waste of waters to Carolina's borders; and onward through evergreen forests, and lea})ing broad soun<ls and rapid rivers to New Berne. "For God's sake forward it night and day," said tliat grand old patriot, Cornelius Harnett, of NEW BERNE, N. C. 27 Ih'unswick. Men of Soufcli Carolina heard the news and on fresh rela3's of horses, dispatcdied it through groves of pine, pahnetto and jnajestic oaks, and over broad savannas to Charh?ston; and still onwards, the glorious news sped until it resounded on the blue waters of the Mexiean gulf. It passed through the portals of the AUeglianies and re-echoed from snowy i)eak to snowy peak, and sounded (h)wn the wild gorges of the Freneh Broad until it reached the hardy men on the Holston. The turbid waters of the Ohio bore the news to the brave settlers on the Kentucky. In the north, hill top spoke it to mountain and moun- tain to lake and it w^as borne onward to the waters of the ]nighty Saint Lawrence. Men felt that the wearisome un- certainty w as now over, that war was inevitable. New Berne was wild with excitement. Men flew to arms; every town and every tannery were set to work; the women and children moulded bullets and amid all these stern preparations for w^ar, tlie peo[)le freely gave of their abundance to the relief of the people of Massachusetts. Gov. Martin made strenuous exertions to raise an army amongst the loyalists: he issued cominissions to them, and the Koyal standard was set u}) at Cross creek, near Fayette- villc). An army of 1,500 men, mostly from among the Scotch settlers, w^as soon formed and placed under the command of JJonald McDonald, a veteran Scotch soldier. The continen- tal soldiers under the command (5f Colonels Casw^ell and Lill- ington attacked and defeated, them w^itli great slaughter. A Northern historian in describing this great battle says: ''The strong minute men of the Neuse region, their oflicers w^earing silver crescents upon j;heir hats, inscribed with the stirring words "Liberty or Death" were in front and to their gallantry may be attributed the splendid results of the battle of Moorc'S Creek fought the :^7th of February, 1776. In the month of August 1781 a regular force of 400 men and about the same number of tories under Major Craig nmrclied from Wilmington and captured New" Berne and plundered the town, aiul brutally murdered Dr. Alexander Gaston, one of the leading spirits of the town. Another gentleman, a strong and active opponent of the crown, Mr. Kichard Cogdell, narrowly escaped with his life. New Berne bore her part in the grand revolutionary struggle; she w as a hot bed of revolution. She gave freely of arms men and money to the great cause; and during the entire war her sons participated in the various battles. The population of New Berne at the outbreak of the war did not 28 HOTEL ALBERT, exceed six liuiulred people. Slie had considerable commerce coastwisye and foreign; alter the conclusion of tlie war lier commerce was enlarged. In the early da^ s of North Caro- lina there were many settlers, scions ot families of rank; consequently the artiticial distinction in society were Yer\ prominent; it was the custom even in the proceedings of a court of law to give the title of "gentleman" in the drawing of legal documents. Among the prominent settlers of New Berne was Doctor Alexander Gaston, whose nativity was Ireland. He was a surgeon in the British Navy, resigned in Havana, emigrated to the colonies and settled in New Berne. He was a true representative of Ireland, hot headed, impul- sive and brave. His grand-father was a Presbyterian cler- gyman, of Huguenot stock, that emigrated to Ireland upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1085. The Gastons were descended from the celebrated Count Gaston de Foix, renowned in the 14:th century for his leai'uing, Avealth and prow^ess in arms, and one of the most powerful subjects of the King of France. Alexander Gaston was the father of the celebrated jurist and statesman, William Gaston, whose remaijis now rest in the beautiful Cedar Grove cemetery. Judge Gaston in his day and generation w^as in the foremost rank of the galaxy of great men. He left a grand-son Wil- liam, who Avas an officer in the United States Army, and was killed in Oregon by the Indians in his first campaign. When found, lie was lying on his*side dead, with seven arrows shot through his body and beside him lay his empty revolver and his sword, and around him were the bodies of twelve dead Indians whom he had slain in the desperate encounter. During the administrati(in of Tryou, whose public enter- tainments and great style in which he lived, were the thenM3s of every tongue. New Berne became the seat of colonial fashion. Persons of rank and Avealtii came from the adjoin- ing colonies of Virginia and South Carolina, attracted by the lavish hospitatity of the patrician element of the population — there were patricians in those days — bringing with them their families, servants and blooiled horses; among the amusements then most in vogue was horse rating, and it was carried to a great extent. Tradition runneth that Tryon had the race track now near New I)erne laid out; we think this account of it is correct. He, Tryon, was fond of horses and his stable was well filled. New Berne was out of the track of the contending Bevo- lutionary armies, consequently suffered comparatively little, though she was a hot bed of revolution, and "a iiornets nest NEW BERNE, N. V. 29 of rebellion;" aud poured her treasures freely into tlie lap of the country. In colonial times her merchants possessed princely means and contributed liberally to the war. John Wright Stanly, the most liberal contributor of them all, for he was the rictiest, who after losing thirty-live sail of vessel with their cargoes, came out of the war with his fortune but little impaired. During the last war with Great Britain, New Berne suf- fered much in lier commerce in conseijuence ot the non-inter- course and embargo act entor(jed by the Federal Government. Some of the inhabitants took a new cut to better their- condition, they titted out a privateer and proceeded to make a little war on tlieir own private account; and they were very successful. The writer remembers hearing the captain of the privateer wlien he was cpiite an old man say, ''that when peace was proclaimed he felt like crying," that "privateering paid so well he would like to loUow the business always." The privateer was called the "Snap JJragon" and the com- manders' name was Otway Burns. She was a very fast and a very dangerous vessel to British commerce. She took many prizes and some very rich ones. The first church edi- fice erected in New Berne was the Episcopal. It stood on the corner of the lot now occupied by the present church. The old church, built in colonial times was cruciform, and was pulled down when the present edilice was erected, lie- ligious intolerance existed in North Carolina as well as in Virginia and Massachusetts previous to the days of the revolution. The records of Craven County show, chat this intolerance was shown to the Baptist clergymen who applied to the county authorities for license to preach the Gospel of Chj'ist, and were made to sutfer imprisonment as disturbers of the peace. After the revolutionary war was closed and all men were declared "free and equal" and allowed to worship God in a manner that seemed to them best, then the Baptists built a church near Cedar Grove Cemetery, which is now used as a colored Episcoi)al church. Early in the present century about the year 1806 the mighty tide of Methodism flowed over Eastern Carolina, its beneticial ettects were felt in New Berne. The early apostles of that faith who lirst preached ill New Berne were enthusiastic in their devotion to the cause. They had earned the respect and love of the people by their great self-denial and h(dy lives. Some of them were plain and unlettered men, but their earnestness and sincere love for the cause they had espoused lent them an eloquence t 30 HOTEL ALBERT, that moved the masses, and the good results were seen in the improved condition of tlie })eo[)le both mentally and morally. In the first quarter of the present century the Presbyte- rians erected a church. The pastor, the liev. L. C. Vass, I). D., has published quite an interesting- history of the rise and ])rogress of the Presbyterian church m New Berne. It would be well to state that tlie Presbyterian immigrants into Xorth Carolina were generally educated; wherever they settled they erected a church and a school house. The Catholics also erected a church. 81 nee the erection of these churches, the spliere of religious intluence lias extenihMl and widened until there are now twenty -one churches in the city of New Berne. New Berne has produced maiiy learned and highly gifted men, renowned in law, statesmanship and divinity. 8he was called the alliens of North Carolina. In the preced- ing pages, we have spoken of William Gaston, Judge of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, also United States Sena- tor, the peer of any man who stood up in that body, and justly renowned for liis wisdom, eloquence, learning and piety. There were also the Stanleys, the S[)aights, the Bry- an brothers, Buxton, the Washingtons, tlie Sheppards, the JJonnels, father and sou, Badger, Blackledge, the Hawks, Atmore, Manly, Hutchings, (now of Texas,) H. T. Guiou and others, all with one exception have passed away; their vir- tues are a precious heritage to their descendents. In the days when commerce was carried on coastwise and foreign exclusively in sail vessels, then New Berne was a great ship building point. The introduction of steam transportation injured this industry very greatly. Now the building of steam vessels is a growing industry. About^the years 1828 and 1830 the growing prosperity of New Berne was very much retarded, owing to opening up of the South- western lands. Emigration to the States of Alabama and Mississippi set in. Owing to the vicious system of agricul- ture then in vogue, the uplands of North Carolina were worn out and the cry was for clieaper lands, richer lands and good cotton lands; liad the emigrants of that day i)ursued the same course of industry and painful self-denial in North Carolina that they were compelled to do in the States of their adoption there would have been no necessity of emiuigra- tion. The system of the cultivation of lands now in North Carolina has clianged, and we can point with pride to the farms around New Berne and challenge comparison witli any trucking or cotton farms in tlie [Jnited States. NEW BERNE, N. C. Ne^ e\v Berne, (liirin;n- the war of 1S12, was very near t'all- uvj; into the hands of British sailoi\s. Admiral Oockbnrn whih^ on his way to the West India ishinds, after having finished his ontra.i;es upon the non-eoinbatants in Chesa- peake Bay, anchored his lieet at Oeracoke bar, landed a force on tlie islands of Oeracoke and Portsmouth, took several of the inhabitants prisoners, aiiionij;- them was Mr. Thomas Singleton, then United States Collector. All of them were subsequently released. He destroyed one or two privateers then at anchor that were unable to proceed to a place of safety u[) the Pamlico sound, owing to tlieir heavy draught of water. Having learned that the privateer ^'Snap Dragon" was then at Xew Berne refitting, and also that there w^as a very large amount of specie on deposit in the bank, the fruits of the depredations on British commerce, he determined to pay New Berne a visit. Manning a large number of boats with several hundrtMl marines and soldiers, all well armed, he started theju on the expedition. They had not gone very far before they were signalled to return. Soon after they left the Admiral told Mr. Singleton that they were on their way to New Berne and the object of the visit, and that he anticipated an easy job. Mr. Singleton said that it was to be regretted that he had sent the expedition on such an errand, that it would end in the capture or slaughter of the whole party, as New Berne was well fortitied, and that there were two thousand soldiers there in New Berne waiting marching orders. Upon receipt of this information, which was a ruse upon the part of Mv. Singleton, the expedition was recalled. General Washington in the latter part of the last cen- tury made a tour through the South. He visited New Berne and the people gathered from afar and near to do honor to the distinguished guest. In Tryon's palace the reception Avas held. A ball was given him at the house of John Wright Stanley, situated on the southwest corner of Neuse and Mi(hlle streets, now owned and occui)ied by Mr. James A. Bryan. He was entertained at the house on the north- west corner of Neuse and East Pront streets, now^owned and occupied by the family of the late distinguished Judge Manly. It has been the good fortune of the writer of these pages to have held converse with a lady who was a native of New Berne, and a btdle when Gen. Washington visited the city. She described him as being very stately in appearance, was 32 HOTEL ALBERT. an easy, graceful dancer, had a pleasant smile for everyone, and expressed a preference for corn bread for break- fast. In the grounds of Christ Church is the grave of Charles Elliott, Attorney General of the Province of North Carolina, who died in 1750, and on his tombstone is the following iu script ion : "An Honest Lawyer Indeed." One would think from this inscription that honest law- yers were more than scarce in the colony. We have had much to say with regard to this old historic town. North Carolinians are i)roud of her history. It is true that she has not advanced as far in material progress as other places. There is none of the garish show of wealth exhibited here that one can tind in other towns of like size. The people are friendly and unassuming in their manner, intelligent and courteous, kind and considerate and sojourn ers here always find it so, and invariably express themselves as being well pleased.